The military campaigns of Julius Caesar constituted both the Gallic War and Caesar's civil war. Roman soldiers in Syria, many of whom were former Republicans fighting in the last civil war, joined the force, and the Levant and much of Asia Minor were swiftly overrun by Pacorus I and Labienus, respectively. It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian Empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history. In 53 BCE against Crassus, the Parthians trotted out horse archers and annihilated the Romans. Let’s talk about Antony’s Parthian campaign. Once his campaigns were over, he served as Roman dictator until his assassination on March 15, 44 BC. Podcasts. The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defense against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbors on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals and Germanic tribes. As a preliminary, he planned to first invade and conquer the kingdom of Dacia, roughly modern Romania, which he calculated could be accomplished by the end of 44 BC. Caesar in his commentary on the Second Civil War has the following brief mention: ... Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure. His assassination prevented it – Gareth argued how senatorial fears that Caesar would be successful in this planned eastern expedition factored heavily in his murder. Forums. From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Africa to its fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was closely entwined with its military history. The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajan's rule. He would experience an accelerated political career befitting a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, with the Roman Senate allowing him to advance his career without first holding a quaestorship or praetorship, offices that ordinary senators were required to hold as part of the cursus honorum. The Parthian war of Caracalla was an unsuccessful campaign by the Roman Empire under Caracalla against the Parthian Empire in 216–17 AD. One of the reason the conspirators killed Caesar before his Parthian campaign is the fact that they knew that if he accomplished even half of what he said he would do, and returned laden with the unimaginable wealth of the east, then the people of Rome would have made him king without any hesitation. He is often called "the richest man in Rome". The curia in … The army greeted Octavian enthusiastically. A century and a half later, the emperor Trajan did exactly what Caesar had planned, conquering Dacia, then successfully invading and defeating Parthia, seizing its capital city of Ctesiphon, annexing Mesopotamia, and dictating a highly favorable peace treaty. [13], The public pretense for the expedition was that less than ten years prior in 53 BC an invasion of the Parthian Empire had been attempted by the Roman consul Marcus Licinius Crassus. [1], The expedition was planned to take three years. [22] However, Caesar finally decided to leave Rome and join the army in Macedonia. Pictures. Publius Licinius Crassus was one of two sons of Marcus Licinius Crassus, the so-called "triumvir", and Tertulla, daughter of Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus. According to Dio, the Roman people's desire for this revenge led to Caesar being given sole command of the Parthian campaign by a unanimous vote. The Death of Marcus Licinius Crassus by Lancelot Blondeel, (circa 1548 - 1558) Musea Brugge – Groeningemuseum ( Public Domain ) As predicted, Crassus met his end at the battle of Carrhae 53 BC as the Parthian forces soundly defeated the Romans. While none of Caesar's coins specifically mentions Parthia, I include a coin from a massive issue struck in the four week period February-March 44 B.C. [12] From 40 to 33 BC Rome and Antony in particular would wage an unsuccessful war with Parthia. Over the next 150 years, several emperors seized on the idea of realizing Caesar’s dream of conquering Parthia. After intervening to overthrow rulers in client kingdoms adjoining Parthia, he invaded in 216 using an abortive wedding proposal to the Parthian king's daughter as a casus belli. Sometime in the 2nd century BC the Dacians expelled the Celts from their lands. He needed massive funds to achieve Caesar’s wishes, and he demanded 700 million sesterces as the proportion of the funds set aside by Caesar for his Parthian Campaign. This victory at Carrhae placed Parthia on an equal, if not superior footing with Rome, at least for a brief moment in history. Let’s talk some more about Antony’s Parthian campaign. Following an unprecedented and highly successful campaign in Gaul, Caesar became hugely popular with the Roman people. The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, who died at the battle. Caesar's plan was, after a brief pacification of Dacia, to continue east into Parthian territory. XXXVIII Legions that Caesar constituted in 45 to substitute the veteran legions that were pensioned off. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 BC. However, he would never get the opportunity to try: three days before he was to leave Rome for the Parthian campaign, Caesar was assassinated by Roman senators. [9] Octavius was sent to Apollonia (within modern Albania), ostensibly as a student, to remain in contact with the army. The Parthian campaign was the turning point in Antony’s fortunes. Search. Rise of Empire Your Favorite General. History of Iran: Parthian Empire By: Jona Lendering The Parthian empire was the most enduring of the empires of the ancient Near East. Speculative History. Find your next favorite Podcast Become a member … Sign In Join. Upload. Thread starter Mrbsct; Start date May 3, 2015; Tags caesar invades julius parthia; Home. [6] By 44 BC Caesar had begun a mass mobilization, sixteen legions (c.60,000 men) and ten thousand cavalry were being gathered for the invasion. Julius Caesar invades Pathia Decisive Roman victory-Parthia … [22] Caesar may have also wished to heal the rift from the civil war, or distract from it, by reminding the populace of Rome of the threat of a neighboring empire. [7] [8] These would be supported by auxiliary cavalry and light armed infantry. Bust of Julius Caesa in Naples’ National Archaeological Museum. The campaign was to start with the pacification of Dacia, followed by an invasion of Parthia. He then pushed into southern Anatolia, still with Parthian support. Documents. Dacians often warred with neighbouring tribes, but the relative isolation of the Dacian peoples in the Carpathian Mountains allowed them to survive and even to thrive. in preparation for his aborted Parthian campaign. Burebista was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 45/44 BC. He occupied the Roman province of Syria together with the Parthians in 40 BC. His adversaries also gave him the nickname adulescentulus carnifex for his ruthlessness. Using this fund to raise an army against the Senate’s enemy Mark Antony, Octavian found large support within the senate and Caesar’s veteran legionaries. Register. He needed to win his own glory and gain new riches from a distant land; he had to go back to war. [5] Plutarch, however, describes a bolder campaign. It was to be a massive endeavor with the largest force he had ever led: 16 legions and 10,000 cavalry, in addition to support troops. [11] [12] Caesar intended to leave Rome to start the campaign on 18 March; however, three days prior to his departure he was assassinated. [2] [3] [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] Here the ancient sources diverge. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 682 years of Roman–Persian Wars. [5] [27], After Caesar's death Mark Antony successfully vied for control of the legions from the planned invasion, still stationed in Macedonia and he temporarily took control of that province in order to do so. [13] It was to begin with a punitive attack on Dacia under King Burebista, who had been threatening Macedonia's northern border. Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure. What exactly Caesar personally wanted out of the Parthian campaign has been a subject of speculation since antiquity. At the time of Caesar’s death, Octavian was designated with Caesar’s troops for the Parthian campaign in Apollonia. His peers included Marcus Antonius, Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, the poet Gaius Valerius Catullus, and the historian Gaius Sallustius Crispus. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian Empire established by Alexander the Great. Site Where Julius Caesar Was Stabbed Will Finally Open to the Public . [10] However, some of the aspects of Caesar's planned kingship may have been invented after the assassination in order to justify the act. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian province of Moesia and also by the increasing need for resources of the economy of the Empire. Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, had planned an invasion of the Parthian Empire which was to begin in 44 BC; however, due to his assassination that same year, the invasion never took place. At the time of Caesar’s death, Octavian was designated with Caesar’s troops for the Parthian campaign in Apollonia. Gaining Mesopotamia would give Crassus … The main Parthian force took charge of Syria and invaded Judea. A second Parthian invasion of Syria by Pacorus I resulted in the latter's death and Parthian failure. "Plutarch's Comparison of Pericles and Fabius Maximus", "Caesar's Projected Dacian-Parthian Expedition", "Caesars Partherkrieg (English title: Caesar's Parthian War)", Eventual cancellation and diversion of Roman forces among civil war parties, Unknown number of auxiliary cavalry and light infantry. In 55 and 54 BC, he invaded Britain, although he made little headway. Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC. Gaius Caesar was consul in AD 1 and the grandson of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Ancient Rome Ancient Greece Ancient History Ancient Aliens Gaius Julius Caesar Parthian Empire Royal Shakespeare Company Roman History Roman Empire. While he was losing up to 30,000 irreplaceable men and a foreign war, Octavian was consolidating his hold over the Western empire and the hearts of his fellow Romans. [5] The deployment of the army to Macedonia near the Dacian frontier and the lack of military preparation in Syria have also been used to lend support for this hypothesis. He then finished off his Roman opponents in Africa and Hispania. Home. [6] It has also been proposed that Caesar knew of the threats against him and felt that leaving Rome and being in the company of a loyal army would be safer, personally and politically. It is likely that his six legions were sent to a base Caesar had created in Macedonia in 45-44 B.C. HOW TO LISTEN If you're seeing this message, it means you aren't logged in as a subscriber. Following a similar line of thought in June of that year Caesar temporarily wavered in his intention to leave with the expedition. together they kept some semblance of stability in an increasingly unstable Republic. At its height, the empire spanned Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what are now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Turkmenistan. Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC. With this in mind Caesar planned a great Parthian campaign in c.45 BC, the pretext being to avenge the Roman demise at Carrhae. Then Caesar brought the main body of the legions out to fight the Parthians. [1] The campaign was to start with the pacification of Dacia, followed by an invasion of Parthia. Caesar sent the cavalry and auxiliaries under Domitius Calvinus to harry the Parthian forces for several days. Velleius Paterculus – History of Rome (first century A.D.) Paterculus was a Roman historian who wrote a short Roman history in two books, circa AD 30, which made mention of the Carrhae campaign. Crassus hoped to gain fame by conquering farther east than any previous Roman. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 B.C. A member of the senatorial nobility, Pompey entered a military career while still young and rose to prominence serving the later dictator Sulla as a commander in Sulla's civil war, his success at which earned him the cognomen Magnus – "the Great" – after Pompey's boyhood hero Alexander the Great. From the 4th century to the middle of the 2nd century BC the Dacian peoples were influenced by La Tène Celts who brought new technologies with them into Dacia. The Gallic War mainly took place in what is now France. In 39 BC, Antony sent Ventidius, who defeated and executed Labienus in a counter-attack, and then drove Pacorus I out of the Levant. Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. [10] As Caesar planned to be away for some time he reordered the senate [10] and also insured that all magistrates, consuls, and tribunes would be appointed by him during his absence. [9] In Dacia, Burebista was to die the same year as Caesar, leading to the dissolution of his kingdom. He was the brother-in-law of Brutus, another leader of the conspiracy. [lower-alpha 4] Also Parthia had taken Pompey's side in the recent civil war against Caesar. Roman retreat-Romans defeat Parthian on battlefield, but cannot take cities,causing retreat Votes: 1 1 However, neither Crassus nor Mark Antony were in Caesar’s league as generals, while Caesar was Caesar – an all time great military mind. Quintus Labienus Parthicus was a Roman general in the Late Republic period. Books. He received greetings from veterans with extraordinary tactics and prudence. In 38 BC, Mark Antony invaded Parthia with an even larger force than that which Caesar had planned to use, numbering over 100,000 legionaries, 24,000 auxiliaries, and 10,000 cavalry, only to meet with disaster. From there, Trajan sent … to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae. A number of motivations have been proposed to explain his decision to continue his military career. As he writes that once Parthia had been subdued, the army would move through the Caucasus, to attack Scythia and return to Italy after conquering Germania. Saved. Menu Julius Caesar invades Parthia. [23] After a victorious campaign he would have, as Plutarch wrote, "completed this circuit of his empire, which would then be bounded on all sides by the ocean" [24] and return home with his lifelong dictatorship secured. [19] Buszard's reading of Parallel Lives also interprets Plutarch as trying to use Caesar's future plans as a case study in the error of unbridled ambition. After the defeat of Caesar's assassins at the Battle of Phil… Crassus' payoff was to take the campaign against the Parthians who were raiding the Roman province of Syria. Ancient Rome. After the defeat of Caesar's assassins at the History Themes. Suetonius states that Caesar wished to proceed cautiously and would not fully engage the Parthian army unless he could first determine their full strength. [5] The relationship between the planned Parthian war and his death, if any, is unknown. In the summer of 44, it served under Marc Antony and was defeated at … It was to be a massive endeavor with the largest force he had ever led: 16 legions and 10,000 cavalry, in addition to support troops. 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